By Stephen J. Simpson and Jeacuterocircme Casas (Eds.)

ISBN-10: 0123748291

ISBN-13: 9780123748294

This newest quantity during this sequence comprises articles at the body structure of human and animal illness vectors.

* Contributions from the best researchers in entomology * Discusses the physiological range in bugs * comprises in-depth experiences with helpful info for quite a few entomology disciplines

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Example text

The development of the insect responses to carbon dioxide and heat, and their motivation to feed, is age-dependent; all three types of response reach a plateau more or less at the same time, but show different development patterns and rates. The response to CO2 does not increase gradually with age, but is an all-ornothing response. In other words, insects remain indifferent to this cue during the first week post-ecdysis and are highly attracted afterwards. In contrast, the response to heat progresses gradually, with the responsiveness to heat increasing steadily for about 10 days before reaching a maximum level.

Infestans and R. prolixus display typical antennal movements when exposed to a heat source (Wigglesworth and Gillet, 1934a; Flores and Lazzari, 1996). These movements differ depending on whether the insect is walking or standing during its approach to the source. During the standing phase, antennae move synchronously and in a saccadic fashion, across wide angles; when walking, both antennae are kept at a constant angle in the horizontal plane, moving smoothly up and down in the vertical plane (Flores and Lazzari, 1996).

During both phases, antennae are moved in coordination (modified from Flores and Lazzari, 1996). 001 N = 486 −60 −70 30 35 40 45 50 55 Left antenna 60 65 70 FIG. 7 Coordination of the movement of both antennae during stopping and walking periods of a haematophagous bug approaching a thermal source. Movements are coordinated and the positions of the right and left antennae are significantly correlated in both cases (Flores and Lazzari, unpublished). ORIENTATION TOWARDS HOSTS IN HAEMATOPHAGOUS INSECTS 29 insect’s thermoreceptors.

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