By Hammad M. Cheema, Reza Mahmoudi, Arthur H.M. van Roermund
The promising excessive facts expense instant purposes at millimeter wave frequencies mostly and 60 GHz particularly have received a lot recognition lately. besides the fact that, demanding situations regarding circuit, format and measurements in the course of mm-wave CMOS IC layout must be conquer sooner than they could turn into potential for mass market.60-GHz CMOS Phase-Locked Loops concentrating on phase-locked loops for 60 GHz instant transceivers elaborates those demanding situations and proposes options for them. The process point layout to circuit point implementation of the total PLL, besides separate implementations of person parts equivalent to voltage managed oscillators, injection locked frequency dividers and their mixtures, are incorporated. moreover, to meet a couple of transceiver topologies concurrently, flexibility is brought within the PLL structure through the use of new dual-mode ILFDs and switchable VCOs, whereas reusing the low frequency parts on the related time.
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Extra info for 60-GHz CMOS Phase-Locked Loops
The R, L and C values cannot always be localized, as at a given instant, the voltage (or current) at one point in the circuit maybe passing through its maximum value, while at another point it is zero. A generally accepted rule-of-thumb between these two regimes is that if the circuit dimensions are smaller than l/10, traditional lumped analysis can be used and if comparable or larger than l/10, distributed analysis has to be adopted. In order to obtain numerical information related to the above constraint, the effective wavelength of 60 GHz signals on chip can be determined.
The choice of the loop-bandwidth (oc) is an important step for the overall PLL design and a number of considerations have to be analyzed. Firstly, settling time which is defined as the time required by the loop to switch from one channel to another, is dictated by the chosen loop bandwidth. Secondly, to ensure loop stability oc (or fc) should be a fraction of the reference frequency. This is treated in sufficient detail in  which estimates a condition of fref/10 > fc for loop stability. Lastly, oc affects the noise transfer characteristic of the PLL and defines the “knee” in the overall phase noise curve.
Variation in ground potential in different parts of the integrated circuit generates erroneous voltage levels and innovative grounding techniques are required to achieve a common reference voltage all over the chip. As will be discussed, the solutions to these problems are sometimes contradictory and the designer has to identify the most dominant one based on circuit application and frequency and find the best compromise. 2 discusses measurement related challenges for mm-wave frequencies. Firstly, dedicated instrumentation is a pre-requisite, specifically for high frequency measurements, as indirect methods can yield inaccurate results.
60-GHz CMOS Phase-Locked Loops by Hammad M. Cheema, Reza Mahmoudi, Arthur H.M. van Roermund
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